pubmed: alzheimer's and stem...
NCBI: db=pubmed; Term=alzheimer's and stem cell therapy
NCBI pubmed
  • Trehalose upregulates progranulin expression in human and mouse models of GRN haploinsufficiency: a novel therapeutic lead to treat frontotemporal dementia.
    Related Articles

    Trehalose upregulates progranulin expression in human and mouse models of GRN haploinsufficiency: a novel therapeutic lead to treat frontotemporal dementia.

    Mol Neurodegener. 2016;11(1):46

    Authors: Holler CJ, Taylor G, McEachin ZT, Deng Q, Watkins WJ, Hudson K, Easley CA, Hu WT, Hales CM, Rossoll W, Bassell GJ, Kukar T

    Abstract
    BACKGROUND: Progranulin (PGRN) is a secreted growth factor important for neuronal survival and may do so, in part, by regulating lysosome homeostasis. Mutations in the PGRN gene (GRN) are a common cause of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) and lead to disease through PGRN haploinsufficiency. Additionally, complete loss of PGRN in humans leads to neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (NCL), a lysosomal storage disease. Importantly, Grn-/- mouse models recapitulate pathogenic lysosomal features of NCL. Further, GRN variants that decrease PGRN expression increase the risk of developing Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD). Together these findings demonstrate that insufficient PGRN predisposes neurons to degeneration. Therefore, compounds that increase PGRN levels are potential therapeutics for multiple neurodegenerative diseases.
    RESULTS: Here, we performed a cell-based screen of a library of known autophagy-lysosome modulators and identified multiple novel activators of a human GRN promoter reporter including several common mTOR inhibitors and an mTOR-independent activator of autophagy, trehalose. Secondary cellular screens identified trehalose, a natural disaccharide, as the most promising lead compound because it increased endogenous PGRN in all cell lines tested and has multiple reported neuroprotective properties. Trehalose dose-dependently increased GRN mRNA as well as intracellular and secreted PGRN in both mouse and human cell lines and this effect was independent of the transcription factor EB (TFEB). Moreover, trehalose rescued PGRN deficiency in human fibroblasts and neurons derived from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) generated from GRN mutation carriers. Finally, oral administration of trehalose to Grn haploinsufficient mice significantly increased PGRN expression in the brain.
    CONCLUSIONS: This work reports several novel autophagy-lysosome modulators that enhance PGRN expression and identifies trehalose as a promising therapeutic for raising PGRN levels to treat multiple neurodegenerative diseases.

    PMID: 27341800 [PubMed - in process]

  • Role of Liver X Receptor in AD Pathophysiology.
    Related Articles

    Role of Liver X Receptor in AD Pathophysiology.

    PLoS One. 2015;10(12):e0145467

    Authors: Sandoval-Hernández AG, Buitrago L, Moreno H, Cardona-Gómez GP, Arboleda G

    Abstract
    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the major cause of dementia worldwide. The pharmacological activation of nuclear receptors (Liver X receptors: LXRs or Retinoid X receptors: RXR) has been shown to induce overexpression of the ATP-Binding Cassette A1 (ABCA1) and Apolipoprotein E (ApoE), changes that are associated with improvement in cognition and reduction of amyloid beta pathology in amyloidogenic AD mouse models (i.e. APP, PS1: 2tg-AD). Here we investigated whether treatment with a specific LXR agonist has a measurable impact on the cognitive impairment in an amyloid and Tau AD mouse model (3xTg-AD: 12-months-old; three months treatment). The data suggests that the LXR agonist GW3965 is associated with increased expression of ApoE and ABCA1 in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex without a detectable reduction of the amyloid load. We also report that most cells overexpressing ApoE (86±12%) are neurons localized in the granular cell layer of the hippocampus and entorhinal cortex. In the GW3965 treated 3xTg-AD mice we also observed reduction in astrogliosis and increased number of stem and proliferating cells in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus. Additionally, we show that GW3965 rescued hippocampus long term synaptic plasticity, which had been disrupted by oligomeric amyloid beta peptides. The effect of GW3965 on synaptic function was protein synthesis dependent. Our findings identify alternative functional/molecular mechanisms by which LXR agonists may exert their potential benefits as a therapeutic strategy against AD.

    PMID: 26720273 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

pubmed: alzheimer's and stem...
NCBI: db=pubmed; Term=alzheimer's and stem cell treatment
NCBI pubmed
  • Trehalose upregulates progranulin expression in human and mouse models of GRN haploinsufficiency: a novel therapeutic lead to treat frontotemporal dementia.
    Related Articles

    Trehalose upregulates progranulin expression in human and mouse models of GRN haploinsufficiency: a novel therapeutic lead to treat frontotemporal dementia.

    Mol Neurodegener. 2016;11(1):46

    Authors: Holler CJ, Taylor G, McEachin ZT, Deng Q, Watkins WJ, Hudson K, Easley CA, Hu WT, Hales CM, Rossoll W, Bassell GJ, Kukar T

    Abstract
    BACKGROUND: Progranulin (PGRN) is a secreted growth factor important for neuronal survival and may do so, in part, by regulating lysosome homeostasis. Mutations in the PGRN gene (GRN) are a common cause of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) and lead to disease through PGRN haploinsufficiency. Additionally, complete loss of PGRN in humans leads to neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (NCL), a lysosomal storage disease. Importantly, Grn-/- mouse models recapitulate pathogenic lysosomal features of NCL. Further, GRN variants that decrease PGRN expression increase the risk of developing Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD). Together these findings demonstrate that insufficient PGRN predisposes neurons to degeneration. Therefore, compounds that increase PGRN levels are potential therapeutics for multiple neurodegenerative diseases.
    RESULTS: Here, we performed a cell-based screen of a library of known autophagy-lysosome modulators and identified multiple novel activators of a human GRN promoter reporter including several common mTOR inhibitors and an mTOR-independent activator of autophagy, trehalose. Secondary cellular screens identified trehalose, a natural disaccharide, as the most promising lead compound because it increased endogenous PGRN in all cell lines tested and has multiple reported neuroprotective properties. Trehalose dose-dependently increased GRN mRNA as well as intracellular and secreted PGRN in both mouse and human cell lines and this effect was independent of the transcription factor EB (TFEB). Moreover, trehalose rescued PGRN deficiency in human fibroblasts and neurons derived from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) generated from GRN mutation carriers. Finally, oral administration of trehalose to Grn haploinsufficient mice significantly increased PGRN expression in the brain.
    CONCLUSIONS: This work reports several novel autophagy-lysosome modulators that enhance PGRN expression and identifies trehalose as a promising therapeutic for raising PGRN levels to treat multiple neurodegenerative diseases.

    PMID: 27341800 [PubMed - in process]