heart stem cell therapyStem cell treatment heart

pubmed: heart disease and st...
NCBI: db=pubmed; Term=heart disease and stem cell therapy
NCBI pubmed
  • Gut microbiota dysbiosis contributes to the development of hypertension.
    Related Articles

    Gut microbiota dysbiosis contributes to the development of hypertension.

    Microbiome. 2017 Feb 01;5(1):14

    Authors: Li J, Zhao F, Wang Y, Chen J, Tao J, Tian G, Wu S, Liu W, Cui Q, Geng B, Zhang W, Weldon R, Auguste K, Yang L, Liu X, Chen L, Yang X, Zhu B, Cai J

    Abstract
    BACKGROUND: Recently, the potential role of gut microbiome in metabolic diseases has been revealed, especially in cardiovascular diseases. Hypertension is one of the most prevalent cardiovascular diseases worldwide, yet whether gut microbiota dysbiosis participates in the development of hypertension remains largely unknown. To investigate this issue, we carried out comprehensive metagenomic and metabolomic analyses in a cohort of 41 healthy controls, 56 subjects with pre-hypertension, 99 individuals with primary hypertension, and performed fecal microbiota transplantation from patients to germ-free mice.
    RESULTS: Compared to the healthy controls, we found dramatically decreased microbial richness and diversity, Prevotella-dominated gut enterotype, distinct metagenomic composition with reduced bacteria associated with healthy status and overgrowth of bacteria such as Prevotella and Klebsiella, and disease-linked microbial function in both pre-hypertensive and hypertensive populations. Unexpectedly, the microbiome characteristic in pre-hypertension group was quite similar to that in hypertension. The metabolism changes of host with pre-hypertension or hypertension were identified to be closely linked to gut microbiome dysbiosis. And a disease classifier based on microbiota and metabolites was constructed to discriminate pre-hypertensive and hypertensive individuals from controls accurately. Furthermore, by fecal transplantation from hypertensive human donors to germ-free mice, elevated blood pressure was observed to be transferrable through microbiota, and the direct influence of gut microbiota on blood pressure of the host was demonstrated.
    CONCLUSIONS: Overall, our results describe a novel causal role of aberrant gut microbiota in contributing to the pathogenesis of hypertension. And the significance of early intervention for pre-hypertension was emphasized.

    PMID: 28143587 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Telocytes in Cardiac Tissue Architecture and Development.
    Related Articles

    Telocytes in Cardiac Tissue Architecture and Development.

    Adv Exp Med Biol. 2016;913:127-137

    Authors: Bani D

    Abstract
    The heart is a paradigm of organ provided with unique three-dimensional tissue architecture that is molded during complex organogenesis processes and is required for the heart's physiological function. The cardiac stroma plays a critical role in the formation and maintenance of the normal heart architecture, as well as of its changes occurring in cardiac diseases. Recent studies have shown that the cardiac stroma, including the epicardium, myocardial interstitium, and endocardium, contains typical telocytes: these cells establish complex spatial relationships with cardiomyocytes and cardiac stem cells suggestive for a regulatory role over three-dimensional organization of heart tissues. Telocytes appear early during prenatal heart development and represent a major stromal cell population in the adult heart. Numerous studies have highlighted that telocytes, through juxtacrine and paracrine mechanisms, can behave as nursing cells for cardiac muscle stem cells modulating their growth and differentiation. On these grounds, a possible role of telocytes in cardiac regeneration can be postulated: this hypothesis is supported by recent experimental findings that reduction of cardiac telocytes due to hypoxia may concur to explain the negligible regenerative ability of the post-infarcted heart, while grafting of telocytes in the injured myocardium improves adverse heart remodeling. The increasing knowledge on the properties of cardiac telocytes is orienting the research toward their role as key regulators of the three-dimensional architecture of the heart and new promising targets for cardiac regenerative medicine.

    PMID: 27796884 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

pubmed: heart disease and st...
NCBI: db=pubmed; Term=heart disease and stem cell treatment
NCBI pubmed
  • Transcriptome Profiling of 3D Co-cultured Cardiomyocytes and Endothelial Cells under Oxidative Stress Using a Photocrosslinkable Hydrogel System.
    Related Articles

    Transcriptome Profiling of 3D Co-cultured Cardiomyocytes and Endothelial Cells under Oxidative Stress Using a Photocrosslinkable Hydrogel System.

    Acta Biomater. 2017 Jun 22;:

    Authors: Yue X, Acun A, Zorlutuna P

    Abstract
    Myocardial infarction (MI) is one of the most common among cardiovascular diseases. Endothelial cells (ECs) are considered to have protective effects on cardiomyocytes (CMs) under stress conditions such as MI; however, the paracrine CM-EC crosstalk and the resulting endogenous cellular responses that could contribute to this protective effect are not thoroughly investigated. Here we created biomimetic synthetic tissues containing CMs and human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-derived ECs (iECs), which showed improved cell survival compared to single cultures under conditions mimicking the aftermath of MI, and performed high-throughput RNA-sequencing to identify target pathways that could govern CM-iEC crosstalk and the resulting improvement in cell viability. Our results showed that single cultured CMs had different gene expression profiles compared to CMs co-cultured with iECs. More importantly, this gene expression profile was preserved in response to oxidative stress in co-cultured CMs while single cultured CMs showed a significantly different gene expression pattern under stress, suggesting a stabilizing effect of iECs on CMs under oxidative stress conditions. Furthermore, we have validated the in vivo relevance of our engineered model tissues by comparing the changes in the expression levels of several key genes of the encapsulated CMs and iECs with in vivo rat MI model data and clinical data, respectively. We conclude that iECs have protective effects on CMs under oxidative stress through stabilizing mitochondrial complexes, suppressing oxidative phosphorylation pathway and activating pathways such as the drug metabolism-cytochrome P450 pathway, Rap1 signaling pathway, and adrenergic signaling in cardiomyocytes pathway.
    STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE: Heart diseases are the leading cause of death worldwide. Oxidative stress is a common unwanted outcome that especially occurs due to the reperfusion following heart attack or heart surgery. Standard methods of in vivo analysis do not allow dissecting various intermingled parameters, while regular 2D cell culture approaches often fail to provide a biomimetic environment for the physiologically relevant cellular phenotypes. In this research, a systematic genome-wide transcriptome profiling was performed on myocardial cells in a biomimetic 3D hydrogel-based synthetic model tissue, for identifying possible target genes and pathways as protecting regulators against oxidative stress. Identification of such pathways would be very valuable for new strategies during heart disease treatment by reducing the cellular damage due to reperfusion injury.

    PMID: 28648749 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

  • Gut microbiota dysbiosis contributes to the development of hypertension.
    Related Articles

    Gut microbiota dysbiosis contributes to the development of hypertension.

    Microbiome. 2017 Feb 01;5(1):14

    Authors: Li J, Zhao F, Wang Y, Chen J, Tao J, Tian G, Wu S, Liu W, Cui Q, Geng B, Zhang W, Weldon R, Auguste K, Yang L, Liu X, Chen L, Yang X, Zhu B, Cai J

    Abstract
    BACKGROUND: Recently, the potential role of gut microbiome in metabolic diseases has been revealed, especially in cardiovascular diseases. Hypertension is one of the most prevalent cardiovascular diseases worldwide, yet whether gut microbiota dysbiosis participates in the development of hypertension remains largely unknown. To investigate this issue, we carried out comprehensive metagenomic and metabolomic analyses in a cohort of 41 healthy controls, 56 subjects with pre-hypertension, 99 individuals with primary hypertension, and performed fecal microbiota transplantation from patients to germ-free mice.
    RESULTS: Compared to the healthy controls, we found dramatically decreased microbial richness and diversity, Prevotella-dominated gut enterotype, distinct metagenomic composition with reduced bacteria associated with healthy status and overgrowth of bacteria such as Prevotella and Klebsiella, and disease-linked microbial function in both pre-hypertensive and hypertensive populations. Unexpectedly, the microbiome characteristic in pre-hypertension group was quite similar to that in hypertension. The metabolism changes of host with pre-hypertension or hypertension were identified to be closely linked to gut microbiome dysbiosis. And a disease classifier based on microbiota and metabolites was constructed to discriminate pre-hypertensive and hypertensive individuals from controls accurately. Furthermore, by fecal transplantation from hypertensive human donors to germ-free mice, elevated blood pressure was observed to be transferrable through microbiota, and the direct influence of gut microbiota on blood pressure of the host was demonstrated.
    CONCLUSIONS: Overall, our results describe a novel causal role of aberrant gut microbiota in contributing to the pathogenesis of hypertension. And the significance of early intervention for pre-hypertension was emphasized.

    PMID: 28143587 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Receptor-interacting protein 140 overexpression impairs cardiac mitochondrial function and accelerates the transition to heart failure in chronically infarcted rats.
    Related Articles

    Receptor-interacting protein 140 overexpression impairs cardiac mitochondrial function and accelerates the transition to heart failure in chronically infarcted rats.

    Transl Res. 2017 Feb;180:91-102.e1

    Authors: Chen Y, Chen S, Yue Z, Zhang Y, Zhou C, Cao W, Chen X, Zhang L, Liu P

    Abstract
    Heart failure (HF) is associated with myocardial energy metabolic abnormality. Receptor-interacting protein 140 (RIP140) is an important transcriptional cofactor for maintaining energy balance in high-oxygen consumption tissues. However, the role of RIP140 in the pathologic processes of HF remains to be elucidated. In this study, we investigated the role of RIP140 in mitochondrial and cardiac functions in rodent hearts under myocardial infarction (MI) stress. MI was created by a permanent ligation of left anterior descending coronary artery and exogenous expression of RIP140 by adenovirus (Ad) vector delivery. Four weeks after MI or Ad-RIP140 treatment, cardiac function was assessed by echocardiographic and hemodynamics analyses, and the mitochondrial function was determined by mitochondrial genes expression, biogenesis, and respiration rates. In Ad-RIP140 or MI group, a subset of metabolic genes changed, accompanied with slight reductions in mitochondrial biogenesis and respiration rates but no change in adenosine triphosphate (ATP) content. Cardiac malfunction was compensated. However, under MI stress, rats overexpressing RIP140 exhibited greater repressions in mitochondrial genes, state 3 respiration rates, respiration control ratio, and ATP content and had further deteriorated cardiac malfunction. In conclusion, RIP140 overexpression leads to comparable cardiac function as resulted from MI, but RIP140 aggravates metabolic repression, mitochondrial malfunction, and further accelerates the transition to HF in response to MI stress.

    PMID: 27639592 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Telocytes in Cardiac Tissue Architecture and Development.
    Related Articles

    Telocytes in Cardiac Tissue Architecture and Development.

    Adv Exp Med Biol. 2016;913:127-137

    Authors: Bani D

    Abstract
    The heart is a paradigm of organ provided with unique three-dimensional tissue architecture that is molded during complex organogenesis processes and is required for the heart's physiological function. The cardiac stroma plays a critical role in the formation and maintenance of the normal heart architecture, as well as of its changes occurring in cardiac diseases. Recent studies have shown that the cardiac stroma, including the epicardium, myocardial interstitium, and endocardium, contains typical telocytes: these cells establish complex spatial relationships with cardiomyocytes and cardiac stem cells suggestive for a regulatory role over three-dimensional organization of heart tissues. Telocytes appear early during prenatal heart development and represent a major stromal cell population in the adult heart. Numerous studies have highlighted that telocytes, through juxtacrine and paracrine mechanisms, can behave as nursing cells for cardiac muscle stem cells modulating their growth and differentiation. On these grounds, a possible role of telocytes in cardiac regeneration can be postulated: this hypothesis is supported by recent experimental findings that reduction of cardiac telocytes due to hypoxia may concur to explain the negligible regenerative ability of the post-infarcted heart, while grafting of telocytes in the injured myocardium improves adverse heart remodeling. The increasing knowledge on the properties of cardiac telocytes is orienting the research toward their role as key regulators of the three-dimensional architecture of the heart and new promising targets for cardiac regenerative medicine.

    PMID: 27796884 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]