optic nerve stem cell treatmentoptic nerve stem cell therapy

pubmed: optic nerve and stem...
NCBI: db=pubmed; Term=optic nerve and stem cell therapy
NCBI pubmed
  • A Promising Tool in Retina Regeneration: Current Perspectives and Challenges When Using Mesenchymal Progenitor Stem Cells in Veterinary and Human Ophthalmological Applications.
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    A Promising Tool in Retina Regeneration: Current Perspectives and Challenges When Using Mesenchymal Progenitor Stem Cells in Veterinary and Human Ophthalmological Applications.

    Stem Cell Rev. 2017 Jun 22;:

    Authors: Cislo-Pakuluk A, Marycz K

    Abstract
    Visual impairment is a common ailment of the current world population, with more exposure to CCD screens and fluorescent lighting, approximately 285 billion people suffer from this deficiency and 13% of those are considered clinically blind. More common causes for visual impairment include age-related macular degeneration (AMD), glaucoma and diabetic retinopathy (Zhu et al. Molecular Medicine Reports, 2015; Kolb et al. 2007; Machalińska et al. Current Eye Research, 34(9),748-760, 2009) among a few. As cases of retinal and optic nerve diseases rise, it is vital to find a treatment, which has led to investigation of the therapeutic potential of various stem cells types (Bull et al. Investigative Opthalmology & Visual Science, 50(9), 4244, 2009; Bull et al. Investigative Opthalmology & Visual Science, 49(8), 3449, 2008; Yu et al. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 344(4), 1071-1079, 2006; Na et al. Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, 247(4), 503-514, 2008). In previous studies, some of the stem cell variants used include human Muller SCs and bone marrow derived SCs. Some of the regenerative potential characteristics of mesenchymal progenitor stem cells (MSCs) include their multilineage differentiation potential, their immunomodulatory effects, their high proliferative activity, they can be easily cultured in vitro, and finally their potential to synthesize and secrete membrane derived vesicles rich in growth factors, mRNA and miRNA which possibly aid in regulation of tissue damage regeneration. These facts alone, explain why MSCs are so widely used in clinical trials, 350 up to date (Switonski, Reproductive Biology, 14(1), 44-50, 2014). Animal studies have demonstrated that sub-retinal transplantation of MSCs delays retinal degeneration and preserves retinal function through trophic response (Inoue et al. Experimental Eye Research, 85(2), 234-241, 2007). Umbilical cord derived MSCs (UC/MSCs) have also been shown to contain neuroprotective features of ganglion cells in rat studies (Zwart et al. Experimental Neurology, 216(2), 439-448, 2009). This review aims to present current MSC therapies in practice, as well as their retinal regeneration potential in animal models, and their innovative prospects for treatment of human retinal diseases.

    PMID: 28643176 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

pubmed: optic nerve injury a...
NCBI: db=pubmed; Term=optic nerve injury and stem cell treatment
NCBI pubmed
  • Rac1 Guides Porf-2 to Wnt Pathway to Mediate Neural Stem Cell Proliferation.
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    Rac1 Guides Porf-2 to Wnt Pathway to Mediate Neural Stem Cell Proliferation.

    Front Mol Neurosci. 2017;10:172

    Authors: Yang XT, Huang GH, Li HJ, Sun ZL, Xu NJ, Feng DF

    Abstract
    The molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the anti-proliferative effects of preoptic regulator factor 2 (Porf-2) on neural stem cells (NSCs) remain largely unknown. Here, we found that Porf-2 inhibits the activity of ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (Rac1) protein in hippocampus-derived rat NSCs. Reduced Rac1 activity impaired the nuclear translocation of β-catenin, ultimately causing a repression of NSCs proliferation. Porf-2 knockdown enhanced NSCs proliferation but not in the presence of small molecule inhibitors of Rac1 or Wnt. At the same time, the repression of NSCs proliferation caused by Porf-2 overexpression was counteracted by small molecule activators of Rac1 or Wnt. By using a rat optic nerve crush model, we observed that Porf-2 knockdown enhanced the recovery of visual function. In particular, optic nerve injury in rats led to increased Wnt family member 3a (Wnt3a) protein expression, which we found responsible for enhancing Porf-2 knockdown-induced NSCs proliferation. These findings suggest that Porf-2 exerts its inhibitory effect on NSCs proliferation via Rac1-Wnt/β-catenin pathway. Porf-2 may therefore represent and interesting target for optic nerve injury recovery and therapy.

    PMID: 28626389 [PubMed - in process]