Crucial transcription factors in tendon development and differentiation: their potential for tendon regeneration.
Cell Tissue Res. 2014 May;356(2):287-98
Authors: Liu H, Zhu S, Zhang C, Lu P, Hu J, Yin Z, Ma Y, Chen X, OuYang H
Tendons that connect muscles to bone are often the targets of sports injuries. The currently unsatisfactory state of tendon repair is largely attributable to the limited understanding of basic tendon biology. A number of tendon lineage-related transcription factors have recently been uncovered and provide clues for the better understanding of tendon development. Scleraxis and Mohawk have been identified as critical transcription factors in tendon development and differentiation. Other transcription factors, such as Sox9 and Egr1/2, have also been recently reported to be involved in tendon development. However, the molecular mechanisms and application of these transcription factors remain largely unclear and this prohibits their use in tendon therapy. Here, we systematically review and analyze recent findings and our own data concerning tendon transcription factors and tendon regeneration. Based on these findings, we provide interaction and temporal programming maps of transcription factors, as a basis for future tendon therapy. Finally, we discuss future directions for tendon regeneration with differentiation and trans-differentiation approaches based on transcription factors.
PMID: 24705622 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]